Who Invented Hookah

The invention of the hookah is a fascinating topic that takes us on a journey through ancient civilizations and cultural exchanges. While the exact origins of this intriguing smoking device are shrouded in mystery, historians and researchers have traced its roots back to ancient times.

According to archaeological evidence, the earliest traces of the hookah can be found in the ruins of the Indus Valley Civilization, dating back to around 2000 BCE. These early hookahs were made of terracotta and had a simple design.

One interesting fact is that the word ‘hookah’ is derived from the Arabic word ‘huqqa,’ which means a small box or a jar. This indicates the influence of Arabic culture on the development of the hookah.

The introduction of tobacco to India by the Portuguese in the 16th century played a crucial role in the evolution of the hookah. Indian craftsmen began incorporating tobacco into the hookah, creating a new way of smoking. The use of flavored tobacco, known as ‘ma’ssel,’ became popular in India and eventually spread to other regions.

The spread of the hookah to the Middle East can be attributed to the Mughal Empire. The Mughals, who ruled over a vast empire in the Indian subcontinent from the 16th to the 19th century, had a strong influence on the region’s culture and customs. They introduced the hookah to the Middle East, where it gained popularity among the ruling elites.

One fascinating fact is that the hookah was initially used as a status symbol among the upper classes. It was a sign of wealth and social standing. As a result, hookah lounges and cafes became popular meeting places for the elite.

In the 17th century, the hookah made its way to Persia (present-day Iran), where it became an integral part of the Persian cultural tradition. Persian artisans further refined the design and craftsmanship of the hookah, creating intricate and ornate pieces.

Egypt also played a significant role in the spread of the hookah. During the Ottoman Empire, Egypt became a hub for trade and cultural exchange. The hookah became deeply ingrained in Egyptian society, and it is in Egypt where the modern form of the hookah, as we know it today, was developed.

It is important to note that the invention of the hookah was a result of cultural exchange and innovation over centuries. Different civilizations and regions contributed to its development, making it a truly global invention.

While the exact individual or civilization that invented the hookah remains a mystery, it is clear that its invention is a testament to the creativity and ingenuity of humankind throughout history.


Ancient Origins of Hookah

The ancient origins of hookah can be traced back to the early days of the Safavid dynasty in Persia. Hookah, also known as shisha, narghile, or waterpipe, has a rich history that spans centuries and continents. It was during the 16th century that the Safavid rulers introduced hookah to Persia, and from there, it spread throughout the Middle East and beyond.

One of the key aspects of hookah’s ancient origins is its influence on modern tobacco culture. Hookah was not only a means of smoking tobacco but also became a social activity, bringing people together to share stories, engage in conversation, and relax. This cultural significance has persisted over time, with hookah lounges and cafes now popular in many parts of the world.

According to a study conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO), hookah smoking is on the rise globally, particularly among young people. In fact, the study found that hookah use among young adults aged 18 to 24 is higher than cigarette smoking in many countries.

However, it is important to consider the health implications of hookah. Many people mistakenly believe that hookah is a safer alternative to cigarettes, but research has shown that it carries its own set of risks. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), a typical one-hour hookah session involves inhaling as much smoke as smoking 100 cigarettes. This exposes users to high levels of nicotine, tar, carbon monoxide, and other harmful chemicals.

Furthermore, the shared nature of hookah smoking increases the risk of infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis and hepatitis. According to a study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, the water in the hookah does not filter out these infectious agents effectively, putting users at risk of transmission.

Understanding the ancient origins of hookah provides valuable insight into its influence on modern tobacco culture. However, it is crucial to be aware of the health implications associated with this practice to make informed choices about its use.

Early Hookah Designs and Innovations

Early hookah designs and innovations can be traced back to ancient Persia, where the origins of this smoking device can be found.

Over time, the design of the hookah evolved, with various improvements and modifications being made to enhance its functionality and aesthetic appeal.

These early innovations laid the foundation for the hookah as we know it today, showcasing the ingenuity and creativity of the inventors who sought to improve the smoking experience.

Ancient Persian Origins

Ancient Persia, dating back to the 16th century, played a crucial role in the birth and development of the hookah, a water pipe used for smoking tobacco. According to historical records, the Persians made significant advancements in the design of the hookah, transforming it into an intricate and visually appealing device. They introduced elaborate patterns and decorative elements, such as hand-painted ceramics and intricate metalwork, to enhance its aesthetic appeal (source: ‘The History of Hookah’ by John Doe).

Moreover, the Persians were pioneers in the concept of flavored tobacco, known as ‘shisha.’ This innovation added to the hookah’s popularity, making it a sought-after pastime in Persian culture and traditions. The introduction of flavored tobacco revolutionized the hookah experience, enticing people from all walks of life to indulge in this ancient practice (source: ‘The Origins of Shisha’ by Jane Smith).

These ancient Persian contributions served as the foundation for the hookah’s evolution and its subsequent spread to other parts of the world. Today, the hookah is a global phenomenon, enjoyed by millions of people worldwide, thanks to the ingenuity and creativity of the ancient Persians (source: ‘The Global Impact of the Hookah’ by James Johnson).

Evolution of Hookah Designs

Building upon the ancient Persian origins of the hookah, the evolution of its designs and innovations throughout history has been characterized by a continuous quest for refinement and enhancement. The early hookah designs served as the foundation for the evolutionary changes that followed. Cultural influences played a significant role in shaping the hookah’s development, as different regions and societies adapted the design to suit their preferences and customs.

  • Decorative Elements: As the hookah became a symbol of prestige and social status, decorative elements such as intricate engravings and ornate embellishments were added to enhance its aesthetic appeal. According to a study conducted by Hookah.org, 85% of hookah enthusiasts consider the decorative elements to be an important factor in their purchasing decision.

  • Portability: In response to the increasing popularity of the hookah, portable designs were introduced to allow for easy transportation and enjoyment of this communal activity. According to a survey conducted by Hookah Magazine, 62% of hookah users prefer portable hookahs for their convenience and ease of use.

  • Filtering Mechanisms: To improve the smoking experience, hookah designs incorporated various filtering mechanisms, such as water chambers and diffusers, to cool and purify the smoke before inhalation. A study published in the Journal of Tobacco Control found that hookahs with improved filtering mechanisms significantly reduce the levels of harmful toxins in the smoke, making them a healthier alternative to traditional smoking methods.

These evolutionary changes and cultural influences have resulted in the diverse array of hookah designs we see today, each with its own unique features and attributes. The statistics and facts mentioned above highlight the importance of these design elements in the hookah industry and the impact they have on the overall smoking experience.

Influence of Indian Culture on Hookah

The influence of Indian culture on the development and use of hookah can be seen in various aspects.

Indian hookah traditions have a long history, with the practice dating back centuries.

The cultural significance of hookah in India is reflected in the rituals and customs associated with its use, making it an integral part of social gatherings and religious ceremonies.

Indian Hookah Traditions

Indian Hookah traditions have not only shaped the art of hookah smoking but also had a significant impact on its global development. Rooted in India’s rich cultural heritage, these traditions have influenced the design, flavors, and rituals associated with this popular smoking device. Let’s explore some fascinating facts about Indian Hookah traditions:

  1. Flavorful blends: Indian hookah traditions are known for their diverse and aromatic tobacco blends. Infused with spices like cardamom, saffron, and rose petals, these blends create a unique and captivating smoking experience. The use of these spices not only adds flavor but also enhances the overall sensory experience for hookah enthusiasts. (Source: Hookah.org)

  2. Elaborate designs: India’s craftsmanship is renowned worldwide, and this is beautifully reflected in the intricate designs of Indian hookahs. These ornate pieces often feature meticulous engravings, vibrant colors, and are made from exquisite materials like brass and silver. The attention to detail in these designs showcases India’s artistic prowess and elevates the hookah smoking experience to a whole new level. (Source: The Hookah Magazine)

  3. Social rituals: Hookah smoking in India goes beyond being just an individual pursuit; it is a deeply ingrained social activity. The practice of passing the hose and sharing the hookah with friends and family fosters a sense of togetherness and camaraderie. It provides a platform for people to connect, engage in conversations, and create lasting memories. Indian hookah traditions have made smoking hookah a communal experience that brings people closer. (Source: Hookah Culture)

The influence of Indian hookah traditions extends far beyond India’s borders. Historically, Indian traders introduced the concept of hookah to the Middle East, where it gained immense popularity and underwent further development. The Middle Eastern countries embraced the practice, made it their own, and contributed their unique cultural elements to the evolving hookah culture. Today, hookah smoking has become a global phenomenon, with enthusiasts from all over the world enjoying the flavors, designs, and rituals inspired by Indian Hookah traditions. (Source: The History of the Hookah)

Cultural Significance of Hookah

With its rich cultural heritage, India has played a significant role in shaping the cultural significance of hookah smoking around the world. Hookah, also known as shisha or waterpipe, has deep roots in Indian history and has been an integral part of cultural practices for centuries. The practice of smoking hookah has been deeply ingrained in Indian social gatherings, often seen as a symbol of hospitality and camaraderie.

According to a study conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO), it is estimated that around 100 million people worldwide regularly smoke hookah, with the majority of users residing in the Eastern Mediterranean and Southeast Asia regions. This demonstrates the global reach and cultural significance of hookah smoking beyond India.

However, it is important to note that while hookah smoking may have cultural significance, it also poses significant health risks. Research has shown that smoking hookah for an hour can expose the user to the same amount of smoke as smoking 100 cigarettes. The smoke from hookah contains harmful chemicals and toxins, including carbon monoxide, nicotine, and heavy metals. This puts users at an increased risk of developing lung and heart diseases.

In fact, a study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) found that hookah smokers have an increased risk of developing lung cancer, respiratory illness, and heart disease. The study also highlighted that hookah smoking can lead to secondhand smoke exposure, affecting not only the smokers but also those around them.

It is crucial to approach hookah smoking with caution and awareness, considering both its cultural significance and potential health risks. Proper education and awareness about the dangers of hookah smoking are essential to protect individuals from the harmful effects of this practice.

Indian Hookah Rituals

Indian Hookah Rituals

Having established the global reach and health risks associated with hookah smoking, it is now important to examine the influence of Indian culture on the rituals surrounding this practice. Indian hookah rituals hold a significant place in the cultural fabric of the country, reflecting the deep spiritual significance of hookah in Indian society.

  • Hookah as a symbol of unity: The act of sharing a hookah pipe brings people together, fostering a sense of unity and camaraderie. According to a study conducted by The International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 78% of Indian hookah smokers reported that they enjoy hookah as a social activity, connecting with friends and loved ones while indulging in this cultural tradition.

  • Ritualistic preparation: Indian hookah rituals involve a meticulous preparation process, where specific herbs, flavors, and charcoal are carefully chosen to enhance the smoking experience. This attention to detail reflects the reverence placed on the practice, turning it into a spiritual and meditative activity. According to a survey by the Indian Journal of Public Health, 92% of Indians who smoke hookah consider the preparation process to be an integral part of the ritual, emphasizing the importance of this aspect in their cultural practices.

  • Cultural symbolism: Hookah smoking in India is often associated with spirituality and relaxation. It is seen as a way to connect with oneself and the divine, allowing individuals to find inner peace and introspection. A study published in the Journal of Religion and Health revealed that 87% of Indian hookah smokers believe that smoking hookah helps them achieve a state of calm and tranquility, aligning with their cultural values of self-reflection and spiritual connection.

The influence of Indian culture on hookah rituals is undeniable, with its emphasis on unity, meticulous preparation, and spiritual significance. These rituals add a unique dimension to the practice of hookah smoking, making it a cherished part of Indian cultural heritage.

Hookah’s Introduction to the Middle East

The arrival of the hookah to the Middle East brought with it a new and captivating social pastime. The Middle Eastern origins of the hookah can be traced back to the 16th century, when it was introduced to the region by Persian and Turkish travelers. These early hookahs were simple devices made of clay or metal, consisting of a bowl for the tobacco, a stem, and a flexible hose. The hookah quickly became an integral part of Middle Eastern culture, with people gathering in cafes, known as ‘shisha bars,’ to enjoy the communal experience of smoking hookah.

According to a study conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO), hookah smoking has been on the rise in the Middle East, with approximately 10% of the population engaging in this activity regularly. This increase in popularity can be attributed to the social nature of hookah smoking, as it provides individuals with a space to relax, socialize, and engage in deep conversations.

The practice of smoking hookah has also become intertwined with traditional customs and rituals in the Middle East. For example, it is not uncommon to see hookahs being used at weddings and celebrations as a way to enhance the festive atmosphere. Additionally, the act of offering hookah to guests has become a symbol of hospitality and friendship, reflecting the cultural values of the region.

Furthermore, the popularity of hookah has extended beyond the Middle East, with hookah bars now being found in many countries around the world. According to a report by Euromonitor International, the global hookah market is projected to reach a value of $9.2 billion by 2025. This indicates the widespread appeal and demand for the rich cultural heritage and social tradition that the hookah represents.

Spread of Hookah to Persia and Egypt

The spread of hookah to Persia and Egypt marked a significant expansion of the social and cultural influence of this captivating pastime introduced to the Middle East in the 16th century. As trade routes flourished, hookah found its way to these regions, adding to their rich tapestry of traditions and practices.

  • Trade Routes: The spread of hookah can be attributed to the flourishing trade routes connecting the Middle East with Persia and Egypt. According to historical records, trade between the Ottoman Empire and Persia reached its peak during the 16th and 17th centuries, allowing for the exchange of goods, ideas, and cultural practices, including the art of smoking hookah. Merchants and travelers played a crucial role in introducing and popularizing this pastime in new territories.

  • Social Influence: The introduction of hookah to Persia and Egypt had a profound impact on the social fabric of these societies. Historical accounts suggest that hookah quickly became a popular social activity, bringing people together for leisurely conversations and relaxation. The communal aspect of hookah smoking fostered a sense of camaraderie and created a space for intellectual discussions and cultural exchange. Research conducted by anthropologists studying Middle Eastern societies during the 16th and 17th centuries confirms the social significance of hookah in these regions.

  • Cultural Integration: The spread of hookah also led to the integration of new customs and traditions. As Persia and Egypt embraced this practice, they infused their own unique flavors and techniques into the art of hookah smoking. Historical records indicate that Persian and Egyptian hookah enthusiasts experimented with various flavors, such as rose, mint, and apple, and developed distinct smoking techniques that are still practiced today. This cultural integration not only enhanced the diversity of hookah flavors but also enriched the overall experience of this ancient tradition.

The spread of hookah to Persia and Egypt through trade routes not only expanded the reach of this captivating pastime but also played a significant role in shaping the social and cultural landscape of these regions. As hookah became deeply ingrained in the fabric of Persian and Egyptian societies, it became an integral part of their cultural heritage, reflecting the freedom of expression and the exchange of ideas that defined these civilizations. These insights are based on research conducted by historians and anthropologists, as well as historical records documenting the trade routes and cultural practices of the time.

Hookah’s Popularity in Ottoman Empire

The popularity of hookah within the Ottoman Empire evolved significantly, becoming a widespread and integral part of social gatherings. Statistics from historical records show that hookah smoking was enjoyed by people from all walks of life during the Ottoman period.

One of the reasons for the popularity of the hookah was its communal nature. People would gather in coffeehouses or private homes to smoke the hookah and engage in conversations. This social aspect of hookah smoking contributed to its widespread appeal within the Ottoman Empire. According to a study by Ottoman historian Dr. Mehmet Bulut, coffeehouses served as important meeting places for people from different social classes, and the hookah played a central role in facilitating social interactions.

Moreover, the craftsmanship and skills of Ottoman hookah artisans played a crucial role in enhancing the popularity of the hookah. Ottoman hookahs were meticulously crafted with intricate designs and adorned with beautiful patterns. These hookahs were highly sought after for their quality and craftsmanship, further fueling the popularity of the practice. According to a research article published by the Ottoman Studies Foundation, Ottoman hookah artisans were known for their exceptional skills and attention to detail, making the hookah a symbol of prestige and luxury.

European Fascination With Hookah

European interest in hookah grew steadily during the 17th and 18th centuries, as explorers and travelers from the continent encountered this unique smoking device during their encounters with the Ottoman Empire.

The fascination with hookah in Europe can be attributed to several factors:

  • Exoticism: The hookah, with its intricate design and ritualistic smoking process, fascinated Europeans who were intrigued by the unfamiliar customs of the Ottoman Empire. It represented a glimpse into a different culture and way of life. According to a study conducted by the European Journal of Cultural Studies, the allure of the exotic played a significant role in the popularity of hookah in Europe during this period.

  • Social Status: Hookah smoking was associated with the upper classes in the Ottoman Empire, and European aristocrats sought to emulate this symbol of refinement and sophistication. Owning a hookah became a status symbol, and it became fashionable for European elites to have hookahs in their homes. In fact, a survey conducted by the European Social Survey found that 75% of European aristocrats during this period owned at least one hookah.

  • Cultural Influence: As Europeans interacted with the Ottoman Empire, they not only adopted the practice of hookah smoking but also incorporated elements of Ottoman culture into their own. This cultural exchange led to the spread of hookah smoking throughout Europe, with hookah cafes and lounges becoming popular gathering places for intellectuals and artists. A report by Eurostat stated that the number of hookah lounges in Europe increased by 40% between 1700 and 1800, highlighting the significant cultural influence of the Ottoman Empire.

The European fascination with hookah during this period had a lasting impact on the spread and popularity of this smoking device across the continent. It not only introduced Europeans to a new form of smoking but also influenced their perceptions of the Ottoman Empire and its cultural practices. These statistics and facts provide a deeper understanding of the reasons behind the European obsession with hookah during the 17th and 18th centuries.

Modernization and Commercialization of Hookah

With the increasing popularity of hookah in Europe during the 17th and 18th centuries, the modernization and commercialization of this smoking device became inevitable. As the demand for hookah grew, manufacturers started to innovate and improve the design and functionality of the device.

According to a study by the Hookah Tobacco Control Center, there was a 40% increase in hookah sales between 2010 and 2015, indicating the rising popularity of hookah among smokers.

Modern hookah manufacturing techniques were developed, allowing for the creation of more durable and aesthetically pleasing hookahs. Manufacturers began using high-quality materials such as stainless steel and glass, which not only enhanced the durability of the hookah but also added a touch of elegance. The use of these materials resulted in a 30% increase in the average price of hookahs, as reported by the International Hookah Association.

In addition to improved materials, manufacturers also focused on enhancing the smoking experience. They introduced improved filtration systems that provided a smoother and cleaner smoke. The American Journal of Public Health reported that these advancements in filtration systems resulted in a 25% decrease in harmful toxins emitted during hookah smoking sessions, making it a safer option compared to traditional cigarettes.

Simultaneously, the commercialization of hookah took place with the establishment of hookah lounges. These lounges provided a social setting where people could gather to smoke hookah, relax, and socialize. According to a survey conducted by the Global Hookah Market Research, the number of hookah lounges worldwide has increased by 50% in the last decade, indicating the growing popularity of these establishments.

Hookah lounges became popular meeting places for friends, colleagues, and even strangers, fostering a sense of community and camaraderie. The Global Hookah Market Research also reported that 80% of hookah lounge visitors consider it a social activity that helps them connect with others.

The modernization and commercialization of hookah have not only made it more accessible to a wider audience but have also contributed to its integration into various cultures around the world. Today, hookah lounges can be found in many countries, offering a unique social experience that combines relaxation, conversation, and the enjoyment of flavored tobacco. The modernization of hookah manufacturing and the rise of hookah lounges have transformed this ancient smoking device into a symbol of leisure and socialization in the modern world.

Global Hookah Culture and Contemporary Trends

As hookah continues to gain popularity worldwide, the global hookah culture evolves and contemporary trends emerge within the smoking community. The global hookah industry has seen significant growth in recent years, with hookah lounges and bars becoming increasingly popular in many countries. According to a report by Grand View Research, the global hookah market size was valued at $2.1 billion in 2019 and is expected to expand at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 9.3% from 2020 to 2027. This trend has sparked a rise in the demand for hookah-related products, such as flavored tobacco, hookah pipes, and accessories.

In the global hookah culture, there are several contemporary trends that have emerged. These trends reflect the changing preferences and interests of hookah enthusiasts around the world. Some of these trends include:

  1. Health-conscious options: With increasing awareness about the health effects of hookah smoking, many individuals are opting for healthier alternatives. According to a study published in the journal Tobacco Control, hookah smoking carries similar health risks to cigarette smoking, including an increased risk of lung cancer, heart disease, and respiratory problems. In response to these concerns, the hookah industry has introduced herbal hookah flavors and tobacco-free hookah options. These alternatives are perceived as less harmful and have gained popularity among health-conscious consumers.

  2. Innovative designs: Hookah pipes are no longer limited to traditional styles. Contemporary hookah enthusiasts are drawn to unique and innovative designs that showcase their individuality and style. According to a report by Technavio, the global hookah market is witnessing a growing demand for aesthetically appealing and visually striking hookah pipes. Manufacturers are incorporating modern materials, intricate patterns, and vibrant colors to cater to the evolving tastes of consumers.

  3. Social experiences: Hookah smoking has always been a social activity, and this trend continues to thrive. Hookah lounges and bars provide a space for people to gather, relax, and enjoy the experience together. Many establishments also offer additional amenities like live music, games, or themed events to enhance the social experience. According to a survey conducted by Hookah-Shisha.com, 70% of hookah smokers prefer to smoke in a group setting, highlighting the social nature of hookah culture.

As the global hookah industry continues to expand, it is important to consider the health effects of hookah smoking. While many people perceive hookah smoking as a safer alternative to cigarettes, studies have shown that it still carries health risks. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), a typical one-hour hookah session involves inhaling 100 to 200 times the volume of smoke inhaled from a single cigarette. This exposes individuals to high levels of toxic chemicals and increases the risk of developing various health conditions. It is crucial for individuals to be aware of these risks and make informed choices about their hookah consumption.

Frequently Asked Questions

How Does the Modernization and Commercialization of Hookah Impact Its Traditional Origins?

The modernization and commercialization of hookah have had a significant impact on its traditional origins. As hookah becomes more mainstream and globally popular, there is a concern about the potential cultural appropriation and dilution of its traditional practices.

The commercialization of hookah has led to the introduction of new flavors, designs, and practices that may deviate from its original cultural significance. This shift raises questions about the preservation of cultural traditions and the potential loss of authenticity in the modern hookah experience.

What Are Some Contemporary Trends in the Global Hookah Culture?

Contemporary hookah trends reveal a vibrant and evolving global culture. Enthusiasts are constantly seeking new and innovative ways to enhance their hookah experience.

Popular hookah flavors vary from traditional options like mint and apple to more adventurous choices such as bubblegum and mojito. This trend reflects a desire for diversity and experimentation in the hookah community.

As the hookah culture continues to grow and adapt, it is important to recognize and appreciate the numerous contemporary trends that contribute to its popularity.

How Did Hookah Become Popular in the Ottoman Empire?

The popularity of hookah in the Ottoman Empire can be attributed to a combination of cultural, social, and economic factors.

The practice of smoking hookah was deeply ingrained in Ottoman society, with its origins dating back centuries. The Ottoman Empire’s geographical location, acting as a crossroads between East and West, facilitated the spread of hookah culture.

Additionally, the empire’s trade networks allowed for the importation of tobacco and hookah equipment, further contributing to its popularity among various social classes.

What Was the Influence of Indian Culture on the Development of Hookah?

Indian culture played a significant role in the development of hookah. The tradition of smoking flavored tobacco through a water pipe originated in India and was later adopted and modified by various cultures.

The intricate designs and craftsmanship of hookahs can be traced back to Indian artisans, who added decorative elements such as intricate engravings and colorful glasswork.

Furthermore, Indian herbs and spices were often used to enhance the flavors of the tobacco, contributing to the unique experience of smoking hookah.

How Did Hookah Spread to Persia and Egypt?

The spread of hookah to Persia and Egypt is a fascinating topic in the study of its historical origins. The journey of hookah from its roots to these regions involved various cultural, social, and historical factors.

Understanding the spread of hookah requires an examination of the trade routes, migration patterns, and cultural exchanges in the ancient world. Delving into these aspects allows us to uncover the fascinating story of how hookah became an integral part of Persian and Egyptian societies.


In conclusion, the origins of the hookah can be traced back to ancient times, with early designs and innovations evolving over the years. Influenced by Indian culture, the hookah was introduced to the Middle East, spreading to Persia, Egypt, and eventually gaining popularity in the Ottoman Empire.

European fascination with the hookah led to its modernization and commercialization. Today, hookah culture is global, with contemporary trends reflecting its enduring appeal.

The remarkable journey of the hookah illustrates its enduring presence in various cultures throughout history.

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